ANIMAL HEALTH IN CHINA 2012 (II)
2014-11-15   Author:管理员   Read Times:2461
Chapter 3 Animal Production

As a pillar sector in China’s agriculture and rural economy, animal production plays an important role in ensuring domestic food security, increasing income of farmers and herdsmen, protecting and improving ecosystems, promoting agricultural modernization, and driving stable growth of the national economy. In 2012, animal production in China registered all-around growth with improved product quality and safety, which enabled sufficient supply of livestock and poultry products at stable prices. This effectively guaranteed the “food basket” of urban and rural residents.

3.1 Brief introduction of animal production

In 2012, the year-end inventories of cattle, sheep/goat, pig, and poultry were 104 million, 282 million, 468 million, and 5.55 billion respectively; and the slaughtered animals of those categories totaled 47 million, 267 million, 662 million and 11.33 billion respectively.

Figure 3-1 Numbers of cattle and pig slaughtered and year-end inventories (2008-2012)

Figure 3-2 Numbers of sheep/goat and poultry slaughtered and year-end inventories (unit: 100 million) (2008-2012)

Table 3-1 Livestock and poultry production in 2012

                           Unit: Million heads  

Category

Slaughtered

Year-end inventory

Pig

697.895

475.922

Cattle

47.609

103.434

Horse

1.577

6.335

Sheep/goat

270.996

285.041

Poultry

12080

5800

Donkey

2.474

6.361

Mule

0.58

2.492

Camel

0.07

0.295

Rabbit

487.767

221.582


In 2012, the total production of pork, beef, mutton/lamb and poultry meat reached 53.427 million tons, 6.623 million tons, 4.01 million tons, and 18.226 million tons. The total production of eggs, milk and honey registered 28.612 million tons, 38.686 million tons (37.436 million tons from cattle) and 448,000 tons. The year-on-year growth rate for each category stood at 5.6%, 2.3%, 2%, 6.7%, 1.8%, 1.5% and 4% respectively.

3.2 Animal production regions

Thanks to support policies of the central government and commitment of local authorities in recent years, China has continued to improve and adjust its animal farming structure and promote standardized large-scale farming, which has contributed to steady increase in large-scale farming of pigs, dairy cattle and layers, and development of competitive production regions of pigs, dairy cattle, beef cattle and mutton sheep.

Major regions of pork production are mid-southern and southwestern parts of China. Between 2006 and 2012, top ten provinces[1] of pork production include Guangdong, Henan, Yunnan and Sichuan. The total of their annual output was around 31 million tons, accounting for 63% of the national beef producti.


Figure 3-3 Top ten provinces of pork production (2006-2012)


Major regions of beef cattle production are northeastern, northwestern and southwestern parts of China. Between 2006 and 2012, top ten provinces of beef production include Heilongjiang, Liaoning, Xinjiang and Sichuan. The total of their annual output was around 4.8 million tons, accounting for 73% of the national beef production.

Figure 3-4 Top ten provinces of beef production (2006-2012)


Major regions of mutton sheep production are northeastern, northwestern and southwestern parts of China. Between 2006 and 2012, top ten provinces of mutton production include Heilongjiang, Liaoning, Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang. The total of their annual output was around 3.1 million tons, accounting for 76% of the national mutton production.


Figure 3-5 Top ten provinces of mutton production (2006-2012)


Major regions of egg production are northeastern, northern, middle and southwestern parts of China. Between 2006 and 2012, top ten provinces of egg production include Heilongjiang, Hebei, Sichuan and Shandong. The total of their annual output was around 21.7 million tons, accounting for 78% of the national egg production.


Figure 3-6 Top ten provinces of egg production (2006-2012)


Major regions of dairy production are northeastern, northern and northwestern parts of China. Between 2006 and 2012, top ten provinces of milk production include Heilongjiang, Liaoning, Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang. The total of their annual output was around 29.26 million tons, accounting for 83% of the national milk production.

Figure 3-7 Top ten provinces of milk production (2006-2012)


Major regions of honey production are northeastern, mid-southern and southwestern parts of China. Between 2006 and 2012, top ten provinces of honey production include Heilongjiang, Liaoning, Sichuan and Shandong. The total of their annual output was around 310,000 tons, accounting for 78% of the national total.

Figure 3-8 Top ten provinces of honey production (2006-2012)



Chapter 4 Animal Disease Status

In 2012, animal disease status in China remained stable, without any regional outbreak. This means China reached its goal on disease control and agricultural product safety and effectively protected its animal production and veterinary public health.

4.1 OIE listed diseases that did not occur in China in 2012

China eradicated rinderpest in 1955 and was recognized by OIE as a rinderpest-free country in 2008. CBPP was eradicated in 1996, and CBPP-free status was recognized by OIE in 2011. Table 4-1 showed OIE listed diseases that did not occur in China in 2012.

Table 4-1 OIE listed diseases that did not occur in 2012

Susceptible species

Diseases

Multiple species

Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever, Old World screwworm, surra (Trypanosoma evansi), heartwater, Rift Valley fever, bluetongue, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, Q fever, tularaemia

Cattle

Bovine genital compylobacteriosis, enzootic bovine leukosis, lumpy skin disease, bovine anaplasmosis, trichomoniasis

Sheep and goat

Contagious agalactia, maedi-visna disease, Nairobi sheep disease, scrapie

Swine

Nipah virus encephalitis, swine vesicular disease

Equine animals

Contagious equine metritis, equine viral arteritis, dourine, equine piroplasmosis, glanders, equine infectious anemia, equine rhinopneumonitis

Rabbit

Myxomatosis

Poultry

Avian mycoplasmosis (Mycoplasma synoviae), low pathogenic avian influenza in poultry

Bee

Acariasis of bees, small hive beetles, American foulbrood, European foulbrood, tropical laelapsechidninus, varroa mites

Others

Camelpox, leishmaniasis


4.2 OIE listed diseases in China

In 2012, there were 46 OIE listed diseases reported in China, including 11 multiple species diseases, 6 cattle diseases, 6 sheep and goat diseases, 4 swine diseases, 1 rabbit disease, 10 avian diseases, 3 fish diseases and 5 crustacean diseases (Table 4-2).

Table 4-2 Information of OIE listed diseases in 2012

Diseases

Number of outbreaks

Sick animals

Number of sick animals

Number of dead animals

Number

of culled animals

Number of destroyed animals

Anthrax

13

Pigs

96

69

185

300

Aujeszky's disease

169

Pigs

2571

520

80

30

Echinococcosis

48

Sheep/Goats

327

74

151

0

Rabies

109

Dogs

384

147

35

311

Paratuberculosis

6

Cattle

8

0

8

0

Trichinellosis

5

Pigs

17

0

0

0

Sheep/Goats

20

0

0

0

Brucellosis

5346

Pigs, Cattle, Sheep/Goats

81906

423

81957

1010

Japanese encephalitis

70

Pigs

608

0

28

158

Bovine babesiosis

24

Cattle

150

41

0

41

Bovine tuberculosis

384

Cattle

872

5

433

357

Haemorrhagic septicaemia

78

Cattle

882

275

0

2

Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis

1

Cattle

12

0

0

0

Trypanosomosis

91

Cattle

586

5

0

0

Bovine viral diarrhoea

18

Cattle

110

12

0

12

Sheep pox and goat pox

135

Sheep/Goats

3397

504

163

271

Caprine arthritis/encephalitis

6

Sheep/Goats

56

8

0

8

Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia

63

Sheep/Goats

1583

497

13

0

Enzootic abortion of ewes

6

Sheep/Goats

47

7

0

7

Salmonellosis

7

Sheep/Goats

97

7

0

7

Swine fever

101

Pigs

1048

653

22

49

Porcine cysticercosis

5

Pigs

15

0

2

5

Transmissible gastroenteritis

4920

Pigs

259179

36922

19051

1481

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome

43

Pigs

1378

270

1

2

Rabbit haemorrhagic disease

116

Rabbits

2451

909

33

15

Newcastle disease

253

Poultry

114205

50116

6042

169878

Avian infectious bronchitis

1085

Poultry

215885

21334

3707

0

Avian infectious laryngotracheitis

1420

Poultry

214993

19236

1785

701

Duck virus hepatitis

499

Poultry

49651

13803

2397

204

Infectious bursal disease

964

Poultry

330899

40461

3661

164

Pullorum disease

7964

Poultry

1323695

112285

22082

1755

Fowl typhoid

150

Poultry

8905

1972

1155

145

Avian chlamydiosis

3

Poultry

1500

200

0

200

Avian mycoplasmosis

99

Poultry

22137

1016

154

0

4.2.1 HPAI

In 2012, there were 5 outbreaks of HPAI in Ningxia, Liaoning, Gansu, Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, and Guangdong, with 49,635 birds sick, 18,633 dead, and 1,587,238 culled. There was one positive case found in AI surveillance in Yunnan.

Figure 4-3 HPAI information in 2012

Time

Location

Sick animals

Number of sick animals

Number of dead animals

Number of destroyed animals

2012-03

Hongta District, Yuxi, Yunnan (Positive case found in surveillance)

Chickens

2

0

35018

2012-04

Yuanzhou District, Guyuan, Ningxia

Chickens

23880

10468

366700

2012-04

Zhongshan District, Dalian, Liaoning

Ornamental chickens

5

5

27

2012-06

Jingtai County, Baiyin, Gansu

Chickens

6200

260

796886

2012-07

Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps

Chickens

5500

1600

156439

2012-09

Zhanjiang Economic & Technological Development Zone, Guangdong

Ducks

14050

6300

267186

4.2.2 FMD

In 2012, there were 5 outbreaks of Type-O FMD in 5 provinces, namely Hubei, Ningxia, Tibet, Liaoning, and Jiangsu, with 365 animals sick, 43 dead and 3,557 culled. There was no outbreak of Type-A and Type Asia-I FMD across the country.

Table 4-4 FMD information in 2012

Time

Location

Sick animals

Number of sick animals

Number of dead animals

Number of destroyed animals

2012-01

Badong County, Enshi Prefecture, Hubei

Pigs

24

0

71

2012-02

Pengyang County, Guyuan, Ningxia

Cattle

4

0

51

2012-09

Bomi County, Linzhi Prefecture, Tibet

Pigs Cattle

231

0

612

2012-11

Puwan New District, Dalian, Liaoning

Pigs

94

43

2478

2012-12

Xinbei District, Changzhou, Jiangsu

Pigs

12

0

338

4.2.3 Swine fever

In 2012, swine fever broke out in 7 provinces (Anhui, Gansu, Guangxi, Guizhou, Shaanxi, Hubei and Yunnan), with 1048 pigs sick, 653 dead, and 58 culled. Compared with 2011, the number of affected provinces dropped significantly, and the numbers of sick, dead and culled pigs declined by 76.9%, 58.1% and 64.6% respectively.

4.2.4 Newcastle disease

In 2012, Newcastle disease occurred in 12 provinces (Beijing, Gansu, Guangxi, Guizhou, Heilongjiang, Hubei, Jiangxi, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Tianjin, Yunnan and Zhejiang), with 102,122 birds sick, 50,116 dead, and 114,637 culled. Compared with 2011, the number of affected provinces did not increase while the numbers of sick and dead birds rose by 144.7% and 92.7% respectively. The number of culled birds dropped by 45.0%.

4.2.5 Rabies

In 2012, rabies occurred in 4 provinces (Hebei, Guizhou, Inner Mongolia, and Sichuan), with 384 dogs sick, 147 dead, and 310 culled. Compared with 2011, the number of affected provinces dropped markedly while the numbers of sick and dead dogs increased dramatically, with growth of 362 and 140 dogs respectively. The number of culled dogs decreased slightly.

4.2.6 Brucellosis

In 2012, Brucellosis was reported in 17 provinces (Anhui, Chongqing, Gansu, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Hubei, Heilongjiang, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, and Zhejiang), with 81,906 sheep/goats sick, 423 dead, and 81,917 culled. Compared with 2011, the number of affected provinces decreased slightly. Sick animals were only sheep and goats. The number of sick and dead animals dropped markedly by 31.2% and 29.4% respectively.

4.3 Non-OIE listed diseases in China

In 2012, there were 13 non-OIE listed diseases reported in China, including listeriosis, toxoplasmosis, other Clostridium infections, actinomycosis, coccidiosis, clonorchiasis, filariasis, enterotoxaemia, sheep itch mite, Vibrio diarrhea, swine erysipelas, infectious rhinitis and avian leukosis.   

Table 4-5 Information of non-OIE listed diseases in 2012

Diseases

Number of outbreaks

Sick animals

Number of sick animals

Number of dead animals

Number of culled animals

Number of destroyed animals

Listeriosis

2

Poultry

11

4

0

4

Toxoplasmosis

100

Pigs

1109

193

19

196

Actinomycosis

5

Cattle

1316

201

0

201

Coccidiosis

6019

Poultry

1400713

91428

2535

93060

Clonorchiasis

26

Sheep

/Goats

207

34

0

34

Filariasis

4

Sheep

67

0

0

0

Enterotoxaemia

139

Sheep

/Goats

2032

673

42

712

Sheep itch mite

142

Sheep

/Goats

2763

19

4

23

Vibrio diarrhea

49

Pigs

1110

100

3

100

Swine erysipelas

1547

Pigs

15846

4062

714

4127

Infectious rhinitis

22

Poultry

5168

59

19

70

Avian leukosis

24

Poultry

6484

1977

1719

3476




[1] The provinces are identified by ranking provincial production for each of the seven years, and choosing the ten  provinces which are most frequently listed among top ten. Similarly hereinafter.

Article source: MOA